Virtual Museums

Teaching Staff: Papaioannou Georgios, Kalogeros Eleftherios
Course Code: MUS446
Field: Museology
Course Category: Specific Background
Course Type: Compulsory
Course Level: Undergraduate
Course Language: Greek
Delivery method: Face to face
Semester: 7th
Total Hours: 3
E Class Page:
Short Description:

Virtual museums are key applications of new technologies at the service of the Museums in the context of museum and public communication. The course follows the following main axes: 1) the relationship between the Virtual Museum in the world of museums, 2) the theoretical background of the Virtual Museum: aims and objectives, the Virtual Museum as a means for the promotion of museum object and the museum/exhibition environment, 3) the social role of the Virtual Museum: Virtual Museums and Audiences, Virtual Museums and Disabled People, 4) Design and Creation Methodology of Virtual Museums: the museological approach, the production of the supplementary material, the presentation of museums in electronic / digital format(s), the available tools, the technical requirements, the methods of assessment, 5) presentation, study and evaluation on specific Virtual Museums, 6) the Future of Virtual Museums.

Objectives - Learning Outcomes:

Upon successful completion of the course students are expected to:

  • understand the notions of virtual museum, digital museum, multimedia, interactive multimedia, online interactive multimedia, enriched reality, virtual reality.
  • describe the history of virtual museum development.
  • analyse digital museums in Greece and abroad.
  • know the codes of digital museum ethics that apply internationally and nationally.
  • understand the importance of virtual museums in relation to the marketing and public of the museum.
  • design and implement virtual museums.

Week #1: What is a Virtual Museum? Definition, description and analysis of the Virtual Museum.

Week #2: Aims and Objectives of the Virtual Museum. Research approaches, pursuits, service to partners and users.

Week #3: New Technologies in Museums (1/3). New technologies in the 21st century museum.

Week #4: New Technologies in Museums (2/3). Virtual reality, augmented reality, interactive games.

Week #5: New Technologies in Museums (3/3). Applications of New Technologies in Museums.

Week #6: Virtual Reality (1/2). Using Virtual Reality in museums. Definition, description and analysis.

Week #7: Virtual Reality (2/2). Examples and Future of Virtual Reality in Museums.

Week #8: Methodology for designing and creating Virtual Museums (1/3). The technical requirements for the design and creation of Virtual Museums.

Week #9: Methodology for Designing and Creating Virtual Museums (2/3). The Virtual Museum and its design. Interpretive tools and practices.

Week #10: Methodology for designing and creating Virtual Museums (3/3). Modern trends and interpretative approaches.

Week #11: Virtual Museums and People with Disabilities. Accessibility of the Museums and social role of Virtual Museums.

Week #12: Presentation, study and commentary of specific Virtual Museums. Examples of virtual museums from Greece and abroad.

Week #13: The Future of Virtual Museums. Virtual Museums in the 21st Century. Goals and specifications.

Suggested Bibliography:
  • Bayne, S., & Ross, J. (2007). The “digital native” and “digital immigrant”: a dangerous opposition. In Annual Conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education. Education (SHRE). Retrieved from
  • dangerous_opposition
  • Bynum, T. W. (2001). Computer ethics: Its birth and its future. Ethics and Information Technology, vol. 2, pp. 109-112.
  • Cameron, F. (2007), Theorizing digital cultural heritage: a critical discourse., Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007.

  • Cameron, F. (2008), The politics of heritage authorship: the case of digital heritage collections. New heritage: new media and cultural heritage, eds. Yehuda E. Kalay, Thomas Kvan, Janice Affleck, New York, 2008.
  • Cappuro R. (2009), Digital ethics, The Academy of Korean Studies (ed.): 2009 Civilization and Peace, Korea: The Academy of Korean Studies 2010, pp. 203-214.
  • Carrozzino, Μ., Bergamasco M. (2010), Beyond virtual museums: Experiencing immersive virtual reality in real museums, Journal of cultural Heritage, vol.11, pp. 452-458, available at :
  • Deliyannis, I. & Papaioannou, G. (2016), Augmented Reality Edutainment Systems for Open-Space Archaeological Environments: the Case of the Old Fortress, Corfu, Greece. In: Deliyannis, I., Kostagiolas, P. & Banou, Ch. (ed.), Experimental Multimedia Systems for Interactivity and Strategic Innovation, Hershey, PA (USA): IGI Global, pp. 307-323.
  • Forte, M., (2007). Ecological cybernetics, Virtual Reality and Virtual Heritage : Α Critical Discource, in Theorizing Digital Cultural Heritage, Cameron, F., Kenderdine, S., ed.. Cambridge, Massachusetts : MIT Press. pp. 389-409
  • Hawkey, R. (2004). Learning with digital technologies in museums , science centres and galleries. A NESTA Futurelab Research report - report 9
  • Hooper-Greenhill, E. (Ed.). (2005). Museum, Media, Message. London: Routledge
  • Keene, S. (1998). Digital collections: Museums in the information age. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • Loran M., (2005). Use of Websites to Increase Access and Develop Audiences in Museums : Experiences in British Museums , in Carreras C. (coord.) “ICT and Heritage” (online dossier) , in Digithum no 7. Available at
  • MacDonald, George & Alsford, Stephen. - Vers le musee virtuel: periode de crise et de changement pour le troisieme millenaire. (Discours-programme prononce lors de la 54e assemblee annuelle de l'American Association for State and Local History, Omaha, le 30 septembre 1994). [Ressource electronique:]
  • Papaioannou, G. & Paschou, S. (2016). Do predators go digital? Discussing museum ethics in the digital habitat in ICOM 24th General Conference Museums and Cultural Landscapes, Milan 3-9 July 2016.
  • Richani, E., Papaioannou, G. & Banou, Ch. (2016), Emerging Οpportunities: the Internet, Marketing and Museums, 20th International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Communications and Computers (CSCC 2016), Corfu, Greece, July 14-17, 2016.
  • Sears A., Jacko J.A., (2008). The Human – Computer Interaction Handbook. Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications, New York : CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Spinello, R., (2003). Cyberethics, Morality and Law in Cyberspace, USA : Jones and Bartlett Publishers
  • Wassom, B. (2015). Augmented Reality, Law, Privacy and Ethics. Law, Society and Emerging AR Technologies. USA, Syngress- Elsevier
  • Δεληγιάννης, Ι. & Παπαϊωάννου, Γ. (2014), Μουσείο και αξιοποίηση πολιτισμικού αποθέματος με χρήση ψηφιακής τεχνολογίας και διαδραστικών πολυμέσων. Στο: Μπίκος, Γ. & Κανιάρη, Α. (επιμ.), Μουσειολογία, Πολιτιστική Διαχείριση και Εκπαίδευση, Αθήνα: Γρηγόρης.
  • Οικονόμου, Μ., (2008). Νέες Τεχνολογίες και Κοινωνική Διάσταση της Επίσκεψης στο Μουσείο: Νέοι Δρόμοι ή Αδιέξοδα; στα Πρακτικά Συνεδρίου : Η Τεχνολογία στην Υπηρεσία της Πολιτισμικής Κληρονομίας. Διαχείριση, Εκπαίδευση, Επικοινωνία, Μπούνια, Α., Νικονάνου Ν., Οικονόμου, Μ., επ. Αθήνα : Καλειδοσκόπιο.
  • Οικονόμου, Μαρία - Νέες Τεχνολογίες στα Μουσεία: Εργαλείο, τροχοπέδη ή συρμός; - ηλεκτρονικό Περιοδικό Μουσειολογίας, Πανεπιστήμιο Αιγαίου, 1, 2004 (
  • Πάσχου, Σ., Παπαϊωάννου, Γ. & Δεληγιάννης, Ι. (2017), Οι Πίνακες Συνομιλούν με Μαθητές και Επισκέπτες...: Πιλοτική Αξιολόγηση Ψηφιακής Εκπαιδευτικής Εφαρμογής Επαυξημένης Πραγματικότητας στην Κερκυραϊκή Πινακοθήκη του Δήμου Κέρκυρας, Πρακτικά 3ου Πανελληνίου Επιστημονικού Συνεδρίου με Διεθνή Συμμετοχή, Ανθρωπιστικές Επιστήμες, Εκπαίδευση, Κοινωνία και Πολιτική Παιδεία, IAKE, Ηράκλειο Κρήτης, 5-7 Μαΐου 2017.
Teaching Methods:
  • Lecture with participatory discussion
  • Study material on e-learning platform
  • Case studies - discussion
  • Group work - presentation
New Technologies:


Evaluation Methods:
  • Unseen examination (100%) - compulsory
  • Reflective Journals - Optional action to evaluate the learning process


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